Утримання та догляд Індики
Daily youth should
Daily youth should be mobile and active, weighting 50-52 g. Neck retraction, bulging out feathers, heavy breathing with the open beak, mournful squeak, eating litter, pale color of the head indicate problems with health and maintenance of the bird. Owners should monitor the distribution of the poultry by the room, feed and water intake, change of color or consistency of litter, change of smell in the poultry house.
The room for the production of individuals should be separate from other animal structures, poultry houses and manure storehouses. The industrial farm shall be surrounded by a fence and the grounds in front of the poultry houses shall be concrete covered. It is recommended to observe sanitary and technological breaks to prevent cross-contact and transmission of disease agents. In order to prevent diseases, corpses are permanently removed, pest beetles, rodents are destroyed and wild birds are prevented from entering. Access to the staff room is permitted only in protective clothing and shoes.
Preparation of premises is carried out after removal of previous batch of poultry. After removal of the litter, dry cleaning (sweeping of floors, ceilings, walls) is first performed, then wet cleaning of the premises, hall and ground in front of the poultry is carried out with the help of a high-pressure washer. Residual dirt is removed from feeders and sawdust, ventilation systems and heating devices.
Disinfection is carried out with remedies that have a wide range of effects. Disinfectants are selected from the list of veterinary preparations certified in the country. Separate attention is paid to antiparasitic treatment against oocysts, insects and mites.
After cleaning and disinfecting the room and checking serviceability of heat, light and ventilation equipment, litter is brought in, brooder fences installed, and paper sheets or egg trays laid out for the first feed. The floor of the brooder zone is covered with a layer of softwood sawdust. The surface must be flat to prevent falls, lying on the back and on the side of the bird. The distribution of feeders and drinking bowls in the poultry house is carried out at a distance of 4 m from each other, so that the bird from any place should find a feeder at a maximum distance of 6 m.
The diameter of the enclosing rings is 3.5-4.5 m for 240-400 turkeys. Rings (brooder fences) 30-50 cm high shall be perforated for optimal air exchange. Depending on the conditions in the poultry house, the turkeys are kept in the guard ring for 3-6 days.
The microclimate of the poultry house depends heavily on the properties of the bedding and how it is handled. The purpose of using litter is to create a dry, dust-free environment to minimize the nutrient environment for bacteria. The standard litter for turkeys is cellulosic materials such as straw, wood waste or husks in natural or processed form. The material should absorb moisture well, free of dirt, harmful substances, disease agents or mold.
In order for turkeys to receive heat from below, if floor heating is available, the litter must be applied with a thin layer of about 3 cm, and when heating is performed from above, the litter layer must be 8 cm in summer and 10 cm in winter.
Turkey Litter Usage Standards
|Type of litter||Floor heating||Heating from above|
|Dry shavings||3 cm||8-10 cm|
|Cut straw||0,5-1,0 kg/m2||1,0-1,5 kg/m2|
|Rice husk||3-5 cm||8-10 cm|
|Sunflower husk||3-5 cm||8-10 cm|
Placement of poultry
Cardboard boxes with turkeys are placed in front of prepared enclosing rings or compartments. The birds are quietly moved, do not throw or make noise. Landing density depends on the technical ability to control the climate and in ideal conditions can reach 52-58 кг/м2 of live weight by the end of the growing period. The planting density also depends on the selected cross and the joint or separate holding of males and females.
Under optimal conditions the number of feeders and drinking bowls should meet the standards.
Normative indicators of placement density, feeding and watering of turkeys
|Indicator||Age of poultry, weeks|
|Watering space, cm/head||2||3||4|
|Feeding space, cm/head||7||10||15|
At least 2 bunker feeders and 2 drinking fountains per 100 turkeys with a 25 mm front /head are guaranteed in the brooder area and must be spread on sheets of paper or egg trays to feed.
After placement in the brooder, the turkeys are left for at least one hour to acclimate to the environment, after which every 2 hours are monitored for temperature, ventilation, water level and feed. For 3-4 days you can expand the fence, and for 5-7 days the rings are removed.
Brooding period. In the birds’ area, the temperature should be 36-37 0 С, and at the edge of the ring not lower than 23-26 0 С. The radiators, depending on their type and time of year, should be located at a height of 70-90 cm. For each ring a separate adjustable light source is provided so that the total illumination can reach 80 Lx. Heating of the premises starts in 48-72 hours depending on the time of year. For the first 23 hours, the turkeys are kept in an illuminated room so that the birds can find food and water. In future 16 hour light day is enough for turkey.
The following microclimate values should be adhered to during the broodless growing period.
Recommended microclimate indicators for turkeys
|Normative indicators||Age of poultry, weeks|
|Air Temperature, 0С||37-33||32-24||22|
|Duration of daylight, hours||23-16||16-14||14|
|Lighting intensity, lux||80||60-40||40-20|
|Relative humidity, %||60-70||50-70||50-70|
|Level CO2, %||<0,25||<0,25||<0,25|
|Level СО, %||<0,001||<0,001||<0,001|
|Level NH3, %||<0,002||<0,002||<0,002|
|Air exchange, m3/kg l.w/hour||0,65-1,0||0,6||0,6 (5,0 in warm period)|
|Dust content, mg/m3||<5||<5||<5|
In the case of growing turkeys without enclosure rings, the room must have a constant temperature of 36-37 0С, and turkeys are grown in large groups at maximum density, and forced ventilation must provide excellent air supply and create microclimatic conditions. The temperature of the concrete floor should be about 280С, and the temperature of the litter – 340С.
In open-type poultry houses, fans mix cold air from the outside with warm indoor air. In hot weather, switched fans create a cooling effect. They are placed 12 m apart at an angle 80 0 to the floor.
Closed-type poultry houses provide equipment for forced minimum, transition and tunnel ventilation. Minimal ventilation provides the smallest amount of air replacement to provide oxygen to birds, whereas dust, ammonia, and litter moisture are removed to the outside. This is possible for creating a partial vacuum when air enters through channels in the walls and is removed through ceiling deflectors. Thanks to this, the air will mix over the birds and not cool them. Monitoring is performed mainly by timers.
Transient ventilation is temperature controlled, and starts operation when required above the minimum air exchange speed. Transitional ventilation works at the expense of powerful fans.
Tunnel ventilation provides comfort in warm and hot weather due to the high-speed movement of air displayed by the fans mounted in the walls.
The lighting program is a combination of three different parameters that control the environment in the poultry house: light spectrum, radiation intensity and lighting duration. The light source should provide synthesis of vitamin D, which affects bone saturation with minerals, guarantees growth and uniformity. For growing young birds it is recommended lighting with warm white light 2700-3000 kelvin. The modern lighting program includes periods of lighting and darkness. On the first day of life, the light day should be 23 hours with an intensity of 80 Lx, then gradually decreased to 16 hours/day during the week. Lighting duration at the age of 2-4 weeks should be 16-14 hours, and intensity 60-40 Lx, and then 14 hours and 40 Lx, respectively.
The high quality starter combine feed provides maximum performance of birds. During the first four weeks of cultivation, a skeleton, immune and cardiovascular systems form. Therefore, the excellent health status depends on the quality of the feed and the possibility of eating it enough to achieve the targets at the finishing stage. In the first 24-72 hours turkeys should be fed with optimal grain size distribution, where the number of dust parts less than 1 mm should be not more than 10%. A large percentage of the pulverized fraction in the feed has a negative effect on feed consumption, live weight and feed conversion. In general, genetics manufacturers recommend the following granulometric composition of the starting feed.
Recommended grain size distribution of feed for turkeys
|Combined feed||<1 mm||1-2 mm||2-3 mm||>3 mm|
In the early days, the food is spread on sheets of paper or egg trays, which need to be changed regularly due to contamination. This allows turkeys to find the feed in the first 12 hours after landing. Consumption of food by turkeys is checked by crop palpation after feeding – in hungry it is empty or slightly filled. If there are many such turkeys, it is necessary to take immediate measures: to settle the weak, to reconsider the density of planting, to add feeders, to put the feeders closer to the light, etc. Turkeys have a bad feed change. Based on this, each new kind of feed is introduced gradually, preferably not in the evening, but in the morning, so that during the day the young growth has more time to adapt to such a “stress” factor.
The feed must have sufficient texture for young birds to be able to collect its particles. Small particles and dusty feed turkeys will not be able to eat, and too large feed particles cannot be swallowed. The transition from crumbles to granules must be gradual so that the advantages of the initial stage of growth are preserved. The first granules, introduced into the diet after the crumbles, should be in the form of microgranules, or short granules 4-5 mm long and not very hard, with a strength of 88-92% (Holman test, 30 seconds). In order to reduce changes in poultry nutrition, it is necessary to ensure a gradual transition between two successive nutrition schemes by mixing two diets for 1-2 days.
Optimal particle size of feed for turkeys
|Diameter, mm||Crumbles from granules 3 mm||2-3 mm||3-3,5 mm||3-3,5 mm||3-4,5 mm|
Birds are very sensitive to changes in the physical properties of the feed. Feed consumption will be constant if the quality of the granules is stable. Growth and finishing feed should be in the form of granules with strength of 90-95% in 30 s of testing.
The ingredients used in the nutrition of turkeys should be easily digestible and of the best quality, since the young growth reacts well to the protein level. Excessive levels of indigestible protein can adversely affect performance and health, undigested protein can accumulate in the caecum, causing disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Recipe for feed “TOPKORM” TM Топ ПКі-0к provides turkey with energy, essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals. For this purpose the plant carries out regular control of ingredients, which is based on the principles of analysis of dangerous factors and control at critical points (HACCP). Turkeys are also particularly sensitive to mycotoxins, secondary metabolites of fungi, so the laboratories of the manufacturer carefully control the input raw materials, and to the feed are added adsorbents of mycotoxins, which block them in case of foreign ingress into the gastrointestinal tract from the outside.
By nutritional value “TOPKORM” TM meets the requirements of genetics producers.
Nutrient indexes of combined feed “TOPKORM”TM
|Item||Net energy, kcal||Crude protein, %||Ca, %||P (засв.), %||Na, %||Lysine %||Cystine + methionine, %||Threonine, %||А, thous. МО/kg||D3, thous.МО/kg||Е, mg/kg||Se, mg/kg||Zn, mg/kg|
|Топ ПКі-0к starter (crumbles)||2850,00||27,50||1,45||0,85||0,18||1,8||1,17||1,03||13,12||5,25||105,00||0,32||105,00|
|Топ ПКі-5г grover (granule)||2950,00||21,00||1,25||0,75||0,17||1,5||0,98||0,90||12,50||5,00||100,00||0,30||100,00|
|Топ ПКі-бг finish (granule)||3050,00||18,00||1,00||0,65||0,15||1,18||0,83||0,75||11,00||4,00||60,00||0,30||95,00|
With age, turkeys need to increase their metabolic energy content for tissue growth, development and activity. Compound feed “TOPKORM” TM Топ ПКі-5г contains the optimal amount of wheat and corn, the main source of energy-rich carbohydrates. Vegetable oil is the main source of easily absorbed energy and contains unsaturated fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins with antioxidant properties. Forage proteins, such as gluten and soybean meal with high levels of crude protein and essential amino acids, provide structural elements to build muscle cells, nerves, skin and other tissues. The optimal calcium level in grover diet Топ ПКі-5г has an important influence on the efficiency of fodder absorption, bone growth and development, nervous and immune system functioning, and phosphorus, in the correct and necessary form and amount, optimizes the structure and growth of skeleton bones. Metabolic processes are maintained at the required level by the input of sodium, potassium and chloride sources. These macroelements also affect the quantitative consumption of feed and blood pH. The food producer did not ignore the level of trace elements and macro elements, as a slight mismatch in their level can cause irreversible changes in the development, growth of poultry and overexpenditure of feed. The Novacor premix, manufactured at a worldwide certified factory of quality and safety, contains the optimal amount of minerals and vitamins corresponding to the age of turkeys.
Two types of enzymes are included in the poultry feed. Because cereal products contain non-starch polysaccharides that turkeys cannot absorb, enzymes help to break them down, so this fraction of carbohydrates becomes available. Phytase is another type of enzyme, allows to release phosphorus from natural compounds – phytates. Turkeys cannot absorb this phosphorus because the amount of natural enzyme in the intestine is insufficient. The addition of phytase to the diet releases bound calcium and phosphorus, which significantly saves the use of the sources of these macroelements and prevents pollution of the environment with phosphates.
Starting and growth diets contain coccidiostats – drugs that prevent the destruction of intestinal mucosa cells by parasites of the genus Eimeria.
The finishing diet of “TOPKORM” TM Топ ПКі-бг, in the form of a granule, provides the body of turkeys with the maximum amount of necessary energy, which is necessary for splitting and assimilation of proteins, lipids and polysaccharides coming with feed. During this period, turkeys consume a significant amount of feed, so the recipe has a cost-effective balance of raw materials.
During cultivation, turkeys are provided with bell drinkers at the rate of 1 pcs./ 80-100 cm. The height of bell drinkers must be such that the upper edge is at the level of the bird’s back. If other types of sawdust are used, use the manufacturer’s calculations. Birds must have unlimited access to clean, fresh and quality water. Optimal water temperature is 15-21 0 С. The farm should store water reserve for 24 hours.
Marginally acceptable quality of water
|Hardness||Less than 110|
Water consumption at the beginning of the fattening period is 2.5 times higher than feed intake, and twice as much in the middle stage with a downward trend.
Disease risk reduction. The basis for the successful cultivation of turkeys is the good health of the bird. Health-care concepts specific for turkey farming, agreed with the veterinary physician, play a central role.