Утримання та догляд Несушки
Daily young growth
Daily young growth. Healthy chickens are a guarantee of stable high productivity of laying hens. Therefore, the daily young should have a tidy clean look with a fully adsorbed yolk sac, surely stand on the limbs, walk well, be active and mobile. To prevent diseases of the poultry, it is necessary to monitor daily its behavior, breathing, consumption of water and feed, live weight, consistency of litter, to find out the causes of the case.
After the poultry house is freed from the poultry, disinfection (insect control), deratization (rodent control) and measures against the penetration of wild birds into the premises are carried out. Waste, litter, feathers, dust and various organic substances are removed. The equipment, fans, pipelines, water tanks, feed bins, walls and floors are washed. Disinfection will be effective only after careful cleaning of the premises, so it is necessary to disinfect all surfaces in the poultry house room and all the equipment that is in it.
After cleaning and disinfection, a sanitary gap is made, which lasts at least 10 days. Five days before poultry placement, final aerosol disinfection is carried out with exposure for 48 hours, after which the poultry house is ventilated for 24 hours. In order to check the quality of the works carried out, it is necessary to take washes from the surface of the walls, floor, feeding equipment, feed bins and send them to the laboratory.
Preliminary check of the equipment and its suitability for the potential quantity of chickens. The height of the dinking bowls is adjusted according to the growth of the chickens, so that the watering process is carried out without restriction. The water pressure shall provide a hanging drop in the nipple waterers.
Thermometers shall record minimum and maximum temperatures. The poultry houses are preheated so that the air temperature and relative humidity stabilize 36 hours before placement. After reaching the required temperature, it is necessary to turn on ventilation in the minimum mode, which will avoid temperature difference in different areas of the poultry house. Relative humidity during this period shall not be less than 60%.
A sheet of paper is placed on the floor of the cells to dispense the first feed for 3-5 days. They are gradually removed until 5-7 days. Stationary feeders begin to fill from 3 days of cultivation, and gradually reduce the thickness of the feed layer during the week to avoid its spillage. The drinking bowls should be well lit and accessible to the poultry. Nipple waterers should be placed over the head of the chickens so that the birds reach for them. You can use extra drinking bowls that take up to 3 days to grow, as chickens can get used to them and will not be able to find a new source of water.
At cellular content, chickens are placed on upper or middle tiers of cell batters. Age from the first day to 5 weeks is a key period of development: skeleton, vital organs, immune system develop. Growth retardation during this period will affect live weight at the age of 16 weeks, and the continued productivity of the poultry.
Under optimal conditions, the number of feeders and drinking bowls must comply with the standards.
Normative indicators of placement density, feeding and watering
|Normative indicators||Age of poultry, weeks|
|Space requirement, cm2/head.||120||200||330||400-550|
|Feeding space, cm/head||2||4||6||8-10|
|Watering space, head /nipple||10||10||10||5|
|Need for nipples per cage||2||2||2||2|
The body temperature of chickens is an important indicator that allows optimal adjustment of the temperature in the poultry house. For this purpose it is possible to use a baby ear thermometer, the sensor of which is carefully inserted into the chicken cloak. The optimal body temperature should be 40-41 0 С. Chickens from different areas of the room should be taken to measure the temperature. If the average body temperature of chickens is 39,5 0 С, the room temperature should be increased by0,50 С.
Recommended climate indicators
|Indicators||Age of poultry, weeks|
|Air T, °С||36-27||27-21||18-20||17-19|
|Relative humidity, %||55-60||50-65||60-70||60-70|
|Air velocity, m/sec||< 0,1||0,1-0,2||0,2 – 0,5||0,4-0,8|
|Minimal ventilation, m3/kg l.w./hour||0,8 – 1,0|
|Maximum ventilation, m3/kg l.w./hour||5,0 in summer|
|Lighting, lux||20-40||20 – 6||4-6||7-15|
|Duration of daylight, hours||24-14||14-9||9-10||10-14|
|Level CO2, %||< 0,3|
|Level СО, mg/l (%)||< 40 (0,001)|
|Level NH3, mg/l (%)||< 20 (0,002)|
|Dust content, mg/m3||< 3,4|
Environmental conditions affect the well-being and productivity of poultry. Temperature, humidity and air pollution are important factors. The optimal temperature depends on the age of the poultry. For optimal conversion of the feed during the productive period a favorable temperature is 22-24 0 С.
Closed poultry houses with forced ventilation are usually equipped with built-in fans, plenum vent pane and louvers. Electric fans that extract air from the poultry house create a partial indoor vacuum, so air is drawn in from the outside and replaces the poultry house air.
The modern lighting program includes periods of lighting and darkness. The manufacturer of laying hens genetics offers an individual lighting program for each cross-section, which may also depend on the climate zone. Usually, the first day of life should be 24 hours, decrease to 21 hours during the week, and 9 hours during the period of 7-17 weeks. Lighting intensity at 0-7 days of age shall be 20-40 Lx, at 3-17 weeks shall be 8-6 Lx.
Light stimulation of development is cross-linked and begins usually from 17 to 21 weeks with an increase in light day from 10 to 14 hours (1 hour/week).
Example of light mode for poultry houses for laying hens
|Age of poultry, weeks||Duration of daylight, hours||Light intensity, Lux|
|25 and by the end of the productive period||14||10-15|
The benchmark for proper breeding and the guarantee of high productivity of laying hens is the live weight index at the age of 5 weeks, so timely feeding of good quality feed in sufficient quantity is crucial in achieving this goal. Modern egg crosses of laying hens are very demanding for the nutrients of the diets, due to the effective conversion of feed into products. Therefore, the feed manufacturer of “TOPKORM” TM created the starting diet TOP ПКк-2к, which meets the requirements of genetics producers for use at the age of 1-7 weeks. Feed intake during this period is minimal, but each particle contains a balanced amount of nutrients, vitamins and trace elements. After placement chickens should consume feed as soon as possible. In order to make sure that the chickens started consuming food and water, it is necessary to check the filling of the crop after 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 hours. For this purpose 30-40 chickens are caught in 3-4 points of poultry house and each chicken’s mouth is carefully probed. If the crop is full, soft and rounded, the chickens have found food and water, if the crop is full, but the texture of the food is felt, the chickens have not drunk enough water. The normative filling of a crop in 8 hours is not lower than 80%, and in 24 hours is 95-100%.
Recommended grain size distribution of feed
|Form||Start (crumbles)||Growth (crumbles)||Development||Productivity|
|<1 mm||Diameter 1-3 mm, crumbles contains less than 10% fine particles||<15%||<15%||<15%|
Starting diet TOP ПКк-2к contains sources of easily digestible protein, essential amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, energy, vitamins and minerals, so the free nutrition of chickens will not lack the necessary nutrients. Considering that structural vitamins and trace elements are small particles, vegetable oil is used to bind them to the food, which also has antioxidant properties.
The optimal ratio of limestone to monocalcium phosphate solves the need for calcium and phosphorus, and the vitamin-mineral premix Novacor, provides the poultry with vitamins and trace elements. Premix contains feed enzymes, which help to increase absorption of feed ingredients: improve absorption of polysaccharides and phosphorus. Mycotoxin absorbers block fungal products that may accidentally enter the gastrointestinal tract from the outside. Starting and growth diets contain coccidiostats – drugs that prevent damage to cells of the intestinal mucosa by parasites of the genus Eimeria.
By nutritional value “TOPKORM” TM meets the requirements of genetics producers.
Nutrient indexes of combined feed “TOPKORM” TM
|Item||Net energy, kcal||Crude protein, %||Ca, %||P, %||Na, %||Lysine %||Cystine + methionine, %/span>||Threonine, %||А, thous. МО/kg||D3, thous. МО/kg||Е, mg/kg||Se, mg/kg||Zn, mg/kg|
|ТOP ПКк-2к start (crumbles)||2900,00||18,00||1,00||0,65||0,17||1,00||0,70||0,70||12,00||3,00||40,00||0,20||60,00|
|Топ ПКк-3к growth (crumbles)||2700,00||14,50||0,90||0,50||0,16||0,65||0,60||0,50||12,00||3,00||40,00||0,20||60,00|
|Топ ПКк-1-1 г
(1 phase, granule)
|Топ ПКк-1-2 г (2 phase, granule)||2675,00||15,50||3,70||0,55||0,16||0,75||0,67||0,54||10,00||2,50||30,00||0,20||40,00|
During the period of 8 to 18 weeks, the feed should provide normative live weight at 5% of productivity, produce the desired feeding behavior, develop the digestive tract, and achieve good homogeneity for poultry. This is ensured by the use of “TOPKORM” TM Топ ПКк 3к: the recipe guarantees the uniform development of hair, skeleton, egg laying organs, medullary tissue of tubular bones, which is decisive in achieving and maintaining planned productivity.
Starting from 18 week it is necessary to use a nutritious diet Топ ПКк-1-1 г which provides laying hens in amino acids for growth, productivity and calcium for formation of a shell when use of a feed rather low, and hens did not reach the live weight of an adult bird yet. By 28 weeks the growth of laying hens is not over, so the need for protein for further growth is summed up with the need for egg laying. Granulated feed provides tangible advantages: reduces feed costs, reduces selective feeding, stratification of fodder components, time and energy consumption for feed eating, destroys pathogenic microorganisms, changes starch and protein structure, improves feed taste quality.
From week 46 it is recommended to use Топ ПКК-12 г, which provides egg productivity of poultry at a high level, but has an economically reasonable cost. During this period birds hardly gain weight, the need for a high level of amino acids in the diet is somewhat reduced, so the recipe is cheaper. For production of forage for laying hens products with the high level of assimilation of energy and amino acids are used: corn, soy meal, cake, extrudate and oil. The manufacturer’s labs carry out a thorough quality control of all incoming components. Equipment of known manufacturers provides homogeneous mixing of ingredients and optimal particle size distribution.
In order to achieve high productivity, chickens must obtain high quality clean water. Therefore, fresh drinking water must be constant. It is very useful to use meters to check water flow. The optimal water temperature is 20 0 С. The normal water consumption is considered in the ratio to feed: 1,8-2,1: 1, but this ratio increases to 5: 1 at high temperature (above 30 0 С).
|Hardness||Less than 100|
|рН||6,5 – 8,5|
Disease risk reduction: The poultry supplier must provide the owner with a vaccination and preventive treatment scheme that depends on the epizootic situation in the region. In the absence of this information, contact the veterinary service in the area.