Broiler maintenance and care
Daily young growth
High quality chickens have a tidy clean look with a fully adsorbed yolk sac. They should surely stand on the limbs, walk well, be active and mobile. Satisfactory periodic squeaking is the norm.
First, make sure that the equipment can match the number of chickens and the heaters are installed at the recommended height and can operate at full capacity. Instruments for measuring and regulating temperature are placed at the level of poultry and in the center of the brooder zone. Thermometers shall record minimum and maximum temperatures. Temperature differences are recorded daily, deviations should not exceed 2 0С per day. Poultry houses are preheated so that the floor and air temperatures and relative humidity are stabilized 24 hours before placement.
The poultry house, the territory and all the equipment are thoroughly washed and disinfected before bringing in the nesting material and chickens. The nesting material is distributed evenly 2.5-10 cm thick. The equipment is tested in advance. If necessary, additional feeders and drinking bowls are placed near the main system in the first days of cultivation. Along with the feeders spread sheets of paper (1 copy / 100 heads), on which the feed is scattered in the form of sifted cereals. In the case of brooder baffles, the area of paper feed sheets shall be at least 80% of the total area.
The face time feeder is adjusted throughout the feeding period so that the edge of the trough or cup is at the level of the bird’s back. The level of fodder in the feeders should ensure accessibility, but without dispersion.
Quality litter material should have high absorbency, biodegradability, poultry comfort, low dust content and should be free of pathogenic agents. For this purpose it is desirable to use pine chips, granulated straw, sunflower lug, peat. It is not desirable to use dry sawdust, as a hungry bird can peck up it, resulting in digestive disorders and even death. The litter is laid in one application for the whole period of content or with a layer of 5-7 cm and a new one is added every 10-20 days as it is moistened. However, the thickness of the litter in summer should not exceed 10-12 cm.
Broiler Litter Usage Standards
|Type of litter||Minimum depth or volume|
|Dry shavings||2,5 сm|
|Cut straw||1 kg/m2|
|Rice husk||5 сm|
|Sunflower husk||5 сm|
The landing density depends on the technical possibility of microclimate control and in ideal conditions can start with 20-24 heads per 1 m2 of room area, but not exceed 33-35 kg of live weight during the growth period.
Under optimal conditions, the number of feeders and drinking bowls must comply with the standards.
Normative indicators of placement density, feeding and watering of broilers
|Normative indicators||Age of poultry, days|
|Feeding space, cm/head||4-5||6-7||7-9||10|
|Watering space, head /nipple||2||2,5||2,5||2,5|
Microclimate. Brooder period
Young chickens are unable to regulate their body temperature up to 12-14 days, so microclimate values (air temperature 30 0 C, floor temperature 28-30 0 С , relative humidity 60-70%) are brought to the norm 24 hours before chicken placing. If the room area is very large, brooder partitions are used, which are removed in 5-7 days. During placing the floor temperature should not be less than 32 0С, and when using brooder under the heat source – 40,5 0С.
In the first 7 days it is necessary to provide 23-hour light day with intensity of 30-40 Lx.
In the brooder period (up to the age of 10 days) it is necessary to ensure the level of humidity of 60-70% in the first 3 days and above 50% in the following period. The ventilation level shall ensure fresh air flow and remove harmful gases. It is necessary to control the absence of drafts. Microclimate efficiency is determined by chicken behavior and measurement of clotting temperature. If the chickens are evenly distributed across the brooder zone, they feel comfortable. The optimum temperature depends on the relative humidity.
The following microclimate indicators should be observed during the broodless growing period.
Recommended microclimate indicators for broilers
|Indicators||Age of poultry, days|
|Air T, °С||33-27||26-21||20|
|Relative humidity, %||55-75||50-65||50-65|
|Air velocity, m/sec||< 0,1||0,1-0.2||0,2 (up to 2,5 in the heat)|
|Minimal ventilation, m3/kg l.w/hour||0,8 – 1,0|
|Maximum ventilation, m3/kg l.w/hour||–||2,5 (до 5,0 in the heat)|
|Lighting, lux||> 20||20 – 10||10|
|Duration of daylight, hours||23||18-19||23|
|Level CO2, %||< 0,3|
|Level СО, mg/l (%)||< 10 (0,001)|
|Р Level ь NH3, mg/l (%)||< 20 (0,002)|
|Dust content, mg/m3||< 3,4|
Depending on the type of premises and the capacity of the enterprise, natural and forced ventilation may be used. Blinds or curtains and fans, which help improve temperature control by mixing warm air rooms diagonally, are located in open-type poultry houses. Such fans are placed in suspended position in the center of the poultry house, sometimes they are additionally equipped with fine sprayers.
Closed poultry houses with forced ventilation are usually equipped with built-in fans, plenum forks and louvers. Electric fans that extract air from the poultry house create a partial indoor vacuum, so air is drawn in from the outside and replaces the poultry house air.
The modern lighting program includes periods of lighting and darkness. In the first week of life, the light day should be 23 hours, followed by 18-19 hours. Lighting intensity at the age of 0-7 days should be 30-40 Lx, and further 10-20 Lx. Below 5 Lx, light-day values negatively affect bird care, feed conversion, and growth and can cause impaired eye development, limb damage, decreased behavior activity, and affect the physiological rhythm of the bird body.
Maximum feed use and productivity are achieved using high quality crumbles and granules. A large percentage of the pulverized fraction in the feed has a negative effect on feed consumption, live weight and feed conversion. In general, genetics manufacturers recommend the following granulometric composition of the feed.
Recommended grain size distribution of feed for broilers
|Form||Start (crumbles)||Growth (crumbles 3,5 mm)||Finish (granule 3,5 mm)|
The strength of the finished feed granules was tested by the Holman test and the result should be at least 95% of the whole granules after 30 seconds of testing.
Ration must provide broilers with energy and nutrients for health and effective growth. Amino acids, energy, vitamins, minerals, and water must interact to ensure growth, skeleton strengthening, and muscle formation. The quality of the ingredients and the type of feed influence the absorption rates. The raw materials used for broiler diets should be of high quality. Low-quality products can cause metabolic stress.
Compound feed “TOPKORM” TM is made of quality tested carbohydrate, protein, fat, mineral and vitamin raw materials. The starting diet contains soy products with a high level of raw protein and essential amino acids, and sunflower products are included in the finishing feed, which significantly reduce the cost of the feed. Carbohydrate part base: corn and wheat contain starch rich in exchange energy. In addition, natural corn dyes provide an attractive appearance of the broiler carcass. Vegetable oil contains unsaturated fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamin E, which has antioxidant properties and supports immune system and vitamin F, which is necessary for operation of liver cells, vessels and nerve fibres. Besides, vegetable oil – an easily assimilable source of energy, does not contain cholesterol.
Calcium-phosphorus ratio in the feed “TOPKORM” TM is solved at the expense of carefully selected combination of limestone and monocalcium phosphate, and vitamin-mineral need is provided by Novacor premix, which is manufactured at the plant certified by all indicators.
The poultry feed includes enzymes that promote the absorption of feed ingredients, prebiotics that provide a substrate for the growth of useful microorganisms, probiotics that are a colony of useful bacteria that inhabit the intestine and displace pathogens, organic acids that promote the development of useful digestive microflora, mycotoxin absorbents and antioxidants. Starter and growth rations contain coccidiostatics – drugs that prevent damage of intestinal mucosa cells by parasites of genus Eimeria.
By nutritional value “TOPKORM” TM meets the requirements of genetics producers.
Nutrient indexes of combined feed “TOPKORM”TM
|Item||Net energy, kcal||Crude protein, %||Ca, %||P, %||Na, %||Lysine %||Cystine + methionine, %||Threonine, %||А, thous. МО/kg||D3, thous. МО/kg||Е, mg/kg||Se, mg/kg||Zn, mg/kg|
|ТОП ПК б-0 к prestarter (crumbles)||2925,00||22,50||1,05||0,70||0,19||1,45||0,95||0,88||13,75||5,50||88,00||0,28||99,0|
|ТОП ПК б-5 к start (crumbles)||3025,00||21,50||1,00||0,65||0,17||1,25||0,85||0,75||13,13||5,25||84,00||0,26||94,50|
|ТОП ПК б 6 г grover (granule)||3050,00||18,50||0,90||0,63||0,16||1,12||0,82||0,68||12,50||5,00||80,00||0,25||90,00|
|ТОП ПК б-7 к finish (granule)||3100,00||17,00||0,80||0,60||0,16||1,05||0,78||0,62||12,50||5,00||80,00||0,25||90,00|
After placement chickens should consume feed as soon as possible. Along with the feeders spread sheets of paper (1 copy / 100 heads), on which the feed is scattered in the form of sifted cereals. In order to make sure that the chickens started consuming food and water, it is necessary to check the filling of the crop after 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 hours. For this purpose 30-40 chickens are caught in 3-4 points of poultry house and each chicken’s mouth is carefully probed. If the crop is full, soft and rounded, the chickens have found food and water, if the crop is full, but the texture of the food is felt, the chickens have not drunk enough water. The normative filling of a crop in 4 hours is not lower than 80%, and in 24 hours is 95-100%.
The starting diet is used in the first 10-14 days, which by weight is a small part of the total amount. During this period, feed consumption is low and nutrient requirements are high. The slaughter weight has a positive correlation with the growth of poultry at the beginning of cultivation, so it is advisable to use the Топ ПКб-0к, which contains a high amount of available essential amino acids, vitamins, stimulates biological indicators and provides high profitability indicators. This feed has a physiologically sound form of crumbles, which promotes active consumption.
Up to 14 days the food Топ ПКб-5к is used, which provides birds with the normative volume of nutrients in the starting period, provides effective growth and physiological development in the initial period, contributes to the achievement of planned living weight, health and welfare of the population.
The main diet from day 15 to day 36 of broilers is provided by feed Топ ПКб-6г. During this period, broiler growth continues to increase rapidly. Therefore, the transition to a growth diet is associated with a change in the nutritional and physical structure of the feed from crumbles to granules. Granulation reduces feed costs, reduces selective feeding, stratification of feed components, time and energy consumption for feed eating, destroys pathogenic microorganisms, changes starch and protein structure, improves feed taste quality.
The recipe provides poultry with the necessary amount of nutrients, energy, amino acids to achieve optimal feed consumption, growth, and feed conversion.
Finishing feed Топ ПК6-7г used from 36 day. This feed has an economically sound formulation and does not contain coccidiostatics.
Poultry must have unlimited access to clean, fresh and quality water. Optimal water temperature is 15-21 0 С. The farm should store water for 24 hours. Consumption of water in relation to feed is considered normal: 1,6-1,7: 1. Water consumption increases by 6.5% for each degree when the temperature rises above 21 0 С.
|Hardness||Less than 100|
|рН||6,5 – 8,5|
Nipple drinking bowls are set at a rate of 12 heads/ nipples (9 heads/ nipples when the bird weight reaches more than 3 kg), bell drinkers (40 cm in diameter) at a rate of 6 pcs / 1000 heads. The height of the bell drinkers should be such that the upper edge is at the level of the back of the bird. Nipple drinking bowls are set at the level of chicken eyes for the first 2-3 days, and further maintained at the level just above the head. The water pressure should provide a drop on the nipple needle, but without leakage. Chickens should not reach the drinking bowls during watering. Chickens must not pass more than 3 m to access water. Nipples are placed at most 35 cm apart.
Disease risk reduction: The poultry supplier must provide the owner with a vaccination and preventive treatment scheme that depends on the epizootic situation in the region. In the absence of this information, contact the veterinary service in the area.